With the latter's division in 959, it then fell to the Duchy of Upper Lorraine within the Holy Roman Empire.
The history of Luxembourg properly began with the construction of Luxembourg Castle in the High Middle Ages.
Pottery from this period has been found near Remerschen.
While there is not much evidence of communities in Luxembourg at the beginning of the Bronze Age, a number of sites dating back to the period between the 13th and the 8th century BC provide evidence of dwellings and reveal artefacts such as pottery, knives and jewellery.
The Gaulish tribe in what is present-day Luxembourg during and after the La Tène period was known as the Treveri; they reached the height of prosperity in the 1st century BC.
The Treveri constructed a number of oppida, Iron Age fortified settlements, near the Moselle valley in what is now southern Luxembourg, western Germany and eastern France.
After occupation by Revolutionary France, the 1815 Treaty of Paris transformed Luxembourg into a Grand Duchy in personal union with the Netherlands.The first known reference to the territory of present-day Luxembourg was by Julius Caesar in his Commentaries on the Gallic War.The Treveri were more co-operative with the Romans than most Gallic tribes, and adapted readily to Roman civilization.Since the end of the Second World War, Luxembourg has become one of the world's richest countries, buoyed by a booming financial services sector, political stability, and European integration.In the territory now covered by the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, there is evidence of primitive inhabitants dating back to the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age over 35,000 years ago.